From the 4G Americas white paper.
Saturday, 30 June 2012
Monday, 23 April 2012
Saturday, 14 April 2012
Wednesday, 26 October 2011
- Rel-7: 64QAM or 2X2 MIMO => 21 or 28 Mbps
- Rel-8: DC + 64QAM or 2X2 MIMO + 64QAM => 42 Mbps
- Rel-9: DC + 2X2 MIMO + 64QAM => 84 Mbps
- Rel-10: 4C + 2X2 MIMO + 64QAM => 168 Mbps
- Rel-11: (8C or 4X4 MIMO) + 64QAM => 336 Mbps
Monday, 18 April 2011
Friday, 22 October 2010
Friday, 29 January 2010
A new report has predicted that by 2011 the growth of HSPA+ broadband across key European markets will soar, and could almost double compared to 2009. The number of subscribers is set to soar from twenty two million in 2009 to around forty three million in 2011. The report was released by CCS Insight.
According to the report HSPA+ broadband will be a major factor in seeing growth of one hundred percent in the to five major European markets. The report goes on to state that the European mobile broadband market will enjoy seeing both subscriber and revenue numbers double by 2011. Revenues are set to increase from around six billion Euros in 2009 to around eleven billion Euros in 2011.
Michael O’Hara, chief marketing officer at the GSMA, said: “It is clear from this report that with the right network investment, European mobile network operators will see significant growth in mobile broadband adoption in the next two years. HSPA technology will drive this rapid uptake across Europe as mobile operators and their customers continue to benefit from its expanding, vibrant and competitive ecosystem.”
However, the version of HSPA Evolution that supports 42M bps is still very much in its infancy. Last week, mobile operator 3 Scandinavia announced plans to launch services when modems become available. In December, representatives from Vodafone and the Australian operator Telstra visited Ericsson to Stockholm to view a demonstration, but neither operator has so far announced plans to launch commercial services.
Real-world tests of the 21Mbps networks show the services achieving around 7Mbps speed. If a similar performance could be applied to the new Ericsson/3 network, it could result in speeds of roughly 28Mbps at realistic distances and network load.
and 3 will also deploy 900MHz 3G networks in Sweden in a bid to boost coverage in remote areas, as existing higher frequency networks have left some users with poor performance.
HSPA+ is the next generation technology for China Unicom's WCDMA 3G service. HSPA+, also known as Evolved High-Speed Packet Access, is a wireless broadband standard defined in 3GPP release 7. The HSPA+ network claims with a transmission speed of 21Mbps, 1.5 times faster than its current 3G network.
The outdoor average speed of the networks built up by Ericsson and Huawei reach up to 16.5Mbps and 18.5Mbps on the downlink, 50% higher than that of the existing HSPA network. That means you can download a song within two or three seconds.
According to Cell C an important factor in the decision to appoint ZTE is its ability to offer 4G services using Cell C’s 900MHz frequency band which offers wider and deeper coverage than existing 2100 MHz networks, enabling cost effective deployment to rural as well as metropolitan areas.
Monday, 11 January 2010
Friday, 25 September 2009
In R99, RLC packets had to be relatively small to avoid the retransmission of very large packets in case of transmission errors. Another reason for the relatively small RLC packet size was the need to provide sufficiently small step sizes for adjusting the data rates for Release 99 channels.
The RLC packet size in Release 99 is not only small, but it is also fixed for Acknowledged Mode Data and there are just a limited number of block sizes in UM Data. This limitation is due to transport channel data rate limitations in Release 99. The RLC payload size is fixed to 40 bytes in Release 99 for Acknowledged Mode Data. The same RLC solution is applied to HSDPA Release 5 and HSUPA Release 6 as well: the 40-byte packets are transmitted from RNC to the base station for HSDPA. An additional confi guration option to use an 80-byte RLC packet size was introduced in Release 5 to avoid extensive RLC protocol overhead, L2 processing and RLC transmission window stalling. With the 2 ms TTI used with HSDPA this leads to possible data rates being multiples of 160 kbps and 320 kbps respectively.
As the data rates are further increased in Release 7, increasing the RLC packet size even further would significantly impact on the granularity of the data rates available for HSDPA scheduling and the possible minimum data rates.
3GPP HSDPA and HSUPA allow the optimization of the L2 operation since L1 retransmissions are used and the probability of L2 retransmissions is very low. Also, the Release 99 transport channel limitation does not apply to HSDPA/HSUPA since the L2 block sizes are independent of the transport formats. Therefore, it is possible to use fl exible and considerably larger RLC sizes and introduce segmentation to the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer in the base station.
This optimization is included for downlink in Release 7 and for uplink in Release 8 and it is called flexible RLC and MAC segmentation solution. The RLC block size in fl exible RLC solution can be as large as an Internet Protocol (IP) packet, which is typically 1500 bytes for download. There is no need for packet segmentation in RNC. By introducing the segmentation to the MAC, the MAC can perform the segmentation of the large RLC PDU based on physical layer requirements when needed. The fl exible RLC concept in downlink is illustrated in Figure above.
There is a lot of interesting information in R&S presentation on HSPA. See here.
Main source of the content above and for further information see: LTE for UMTS: OFDMA and SC-FDMA Based Radio Access
Monday, 14 September 2009
Basically most of the UMTS networks in operation are Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) based. There is also another variant called the Time Division Duplex or TDD. In reality there is more than one variant of TDD, so the normal 5MHz bandwidth TDD is called Wideband TDD of WTDD. There is also another name for WTDD to confuse people, called the High Chip Rate TDD (HCR-TDD). There is another variant of TDD as would have guessed known as the Narrowband TDD (NTDD). NTDD is also known as Low Chip Rate TDD (LCR-TDD) and most popularly its known as TD-SCDMA or Time Division Synchronous CDMA.
"Synchronous" implies that uplink signals are synchronized at the base station receiver, achieved by continuous timing adjustments. This reduces the interference between users of the same timeslot using different codes by improving the orthogonality between the codes, therefore increasing system capacity, at the cost of some hardware complexity in achieving uplink synchronization.
The normal bandwidth of FDD or TDD mode of operation is 5 MHz. This gives a chip rate of 3.84 Mcps (Mega chips per second). The corresponding figure for TD-SCDMA is 1.66 Mhz and 1.28 Mcps.
The advantage of TDD over FDD are:
- Does not require paired spectrum because FDD uses different frequencies for UL and DL whereas TDD uses the same frequency hence its more easy to deploy
- Channel charachteristics is the same in both directions due to same band
- You can dynamically change the UL and the DL bandwidth allocation depending on the traffic.
- Switching between transmission directions requires time, and the switching transients must be controlled. To avoid corrupted transmission, the uplink and downlink transmissions require a common means of agreeing on transmission direction and allowed time to transmit. Corruption of transmission is avoided by allocating a guard period which allows uncorrupted propagation to counter the propagation delay. Discontinuous transmission may also cause audible interference to audio equipment that does not comply with electromagnetic susceptibility requirements.
- Base stations need to be synchronised with respect to the uplink and downlink transmission times. If neighbouring base stations use different uplink and downlink assignments and share the same channel, then interference may occur between cells. This can increase the complexity of the system and the cost.
- Also it does not support soft/softer handovers
By the way, in Release 7 a new TDD mode of operation with 10 MHz bandwidth (7.86 Mcps) has been added. Unfortunately I dont know much about it.
You can read more about TD-SCDMA in whitepaper 'TD-SCDMA: the Solution for TDD bands'
Wednesday, 9 September 2009
EMobile Ltd. , Japan's smallest mobile operator, has deployed HSPA+, also known as HSPA Evolved, in the country's major cities, including Tokyo, Osaka, Yokohama, and Nagoya.
This deployment is based on equipment from Ericsson AB, which supplied the core network and core systems integration services as well as the majority of the radio access network. It builds out the geographical coverage for HSPA+ that EMobile has already established using Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. equipment in a number of Japan's other cities, including Hokkaido, Sendai, Niigata, Hiroshima, Fukuoka, and Nagasaki.
Japan is a market with a reputation for being first with new technology, but HSPA+ has been passed over, most notably by market leader NTT DoCoMo Inc., which has focused on moving to Long-Term Evolution (LTE) as fast as possible.
The No. 2 player, KDDI Corp. , is similarly pushing toward LTE, although from a CDMA base that takes HSPA out of the equation, while Softbank Mobile Corp. is known to have run HSPA+ lab trials and has also said it will move to LTE when it gets the necessary spectrum.
EMobile is by far the smallest of Japan's operators, with just 1.67 million subscribers at the end of the second quarter, compared to DoCoMo's 54.86 million, KDDI's 31 million, and Softbank's 20.96 million customers, according to Wireless Intelligence .
You can check out the HSPA+ features in Rel-7 and Rel-8 here.
Zapp, mobile operator of Romania, has launched the first stage of its HSPA+, the upgraded mobile broadband service in the capital city of Bucharest. With this service, the subscribers can enjoy peak download speeds of 21.6Mbps, while upload speeds will increase by up to 15 times, from 384Kbps to 5.8Mbps. According to a report, Zapp contracted Chinese firm ZTE to deploy the network, which will run parallel to the cellco’s second phase 3G rollout, expanding its UMTS services to 63 cities nationwide.
O2 Germany is currently running a friendly user test in Munich where O2 Germany's technology partner is Huawei. Beside being O2's network partner for the overall HSPA-network upgrade, Huawei is also O2 Germany's major vendor for UMTS sticks and therefore O2 Germany is using Huawei equipment for the HSPA+ test as well. The used Huawei E182E stick is a slide-out USB stick, supporting quadband GSM/GPRS/EDGE as well as quadband UMTS/HSDPA up to 21.6 Mbps and HSUPA up to 5.76 Mbps. Furthermore the stick is MIMO ready.
Spanish mobile network operator Vodafone Spain has announced it will begin deploying HSPA+ technology across its network in the autumn of 2009. The cellco says the upgrade will allow its infrastructure to achieve theoretical download speeds of up to 21.6Mbps, while uplink speeds would increase to up to 5.7Mbps. Initially Vodafone expects to launch the increased speeds in seven unnamed ‘major’ cities, with further expansion to follow. In addition, Francisco Roman, president and CEO of Vodafone Spain, has announced that the operator plans to further extend its provision of ADSL services across the country, although it has not given any specifics for areas it plans to extend its reach to.
Swiss network operator, Swisscom says that it is deploying a HSPA+ (HSPA Evolution) upgrade, with the first areas completed in time for the ITU Telecom World 2009 in Geneva. The upgrade will offer a peak rate data transfer rate of 28.8 Mbps - although the more realistic average is no higher than 8Mbps. The network has launched a HSPA 14.4Mbps service at the beginning of this year.
Chunghwa Telecom, the Taiwanese mobile operator has reportedly selected Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) to upgrade its wireless infrastructure with HSPA+ technology. The operator intends to launch its HSPA+ and 3G services by 2010, boosting mobile broadband download speeds to up to 21Mbps. Initially, devices able to utilise the HSPA+ service will include data network cards, USB dongles and wireless modules before it is extended to cover smartphones, netbooks and notebooks.
ZTE Corp has completed the interoperability test (IOT) of its 3GPP R7-based HSPA+ MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) solution, conducted in conjunction with mainstream terminal chip platform manufacturers, in July 2009.
The MIMO solution, realized with its SDR-based next-generation base station, has reached a theoretical speed limit of 28.8Mbps in both cable connection and wireless environment tests. The trials included data download services for UDP (User Datagram Protocol) and FTP (File Transfer Protocol), as well as various IOT item tests.
All the test results indicated stable and fast data download performance. The successful IOT testing confirms that ZTE's MIMO solution is now ready for large-scale commercial deployment worldwide.
Thursday, 12 March 2009
According to 3G Americas press release, 100 million new connections were added last year. On a worldwide basis, GSM totals 3.5 billion of the nearly 4 billion mobile subscriptions or 89% share of market at the end of December 2008. With 278 UMTS-HSPA networks in service in 121 countries, there are 290 million UMTS-HSPA subscriptions as of the end of 2008 compared to 186 million a year earlier—more than 100 million new 3G connections. UMTS-HSPA subscriptions are expected to more than double in 2009, according to Informa’s forecasts, and reach 455 million connections by the end of this year.
A survey last year by GSA showed that over 1000 HSPA devices have already been launched. Remember HSPA device could be HSDPA device only or HSDPA and HSUPA device. According to Dell'Oro group, Worldwide total mobile infrastructure market revenues grew 5% in 2008, driven by the nearly doubling and quadrupling of revenues of the WCDMA and WiMAX markets, respectively.
The focus is now moving towards HSPA+ (Release 7). HSPA+ is already becoming everyones favourite as it now has the potential to compete with LTE. The HSPA+ data rates will soon be able to rival that of LTE. No new spectrum will be required and enhancements will now allow multiple bands to be used at the same time thereby reducing the need to move to LTE for gaining higher data rates by use of higher bandwidth.
O2 Germany is planning to upgrade its network to HSPA+ by mid 2009. Vodafone also plans to upgrade its network to HSPA+ when more devices are available. Hong Kong operator CSLNWM is working with China's ZTE to upgrade their network to SDR based HSPA+ network that could easily be upgraded to LTE. Australia's Telstra has already announced at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona that it is the first in the world to offer mobile broadband service with peak rates of 21 Mbps made possible through HSPA+ technology.
On the devices front Huawei has E182E HSPA+ slide USB stick supporting 21.6Mbps DL and 5.76Mbps in UL. Novatel surprisingly has the same specs for its MC996D modem. Qualcomm meanwhile has released a range of new HSPA+ capable chipsets. The MSM8260 supports 3GPP Release 7 HSPA+ for data rates of up to 28 Mbps. The MSM8660 adds support for 3GPP/3GPP2 multimode, and the MSM8270 adds support for Release 8 dual-carrier HSPA+ for even higher data rates of up to 42 Mbps. All three products offer full backward compatibility to previous generation networks and are pin-, software- and functionally-compatible.
Its just a matter of time before we will all be able to experience the HSPA+ speeds on our mobiles and mobile connected Laptops.
Tuesday, 27 January 2009
Telecom Italia Mobile (TIM) says it will be offering mobile data packages with peak download speeds of 21Mbps by mid-2009, rising to 28Mbps by year-end. The services, based on HSPA+ technology, will initially work via PC datacards using Qualcomm chipsets, CellularNews reports. Ericsson will supply equipment for the network upgrade.
Vodafone now plans to trial mobile broadband data connections with peak rates of up to 21Mbits/s early in 2009 using HSPA+ MIMO functionality.
If the trials prove a success, Vodafone plans to make this technology available in selected commercial networks.
HSPA+ technology is the next evolutionary step in the (3G) HSPA roadmap and increases performance through the use of the more powerful 64QAM modulation technique. Download performance is also improved through the use of multiple antennae (MIMO) technology on both base stations and data devices.
The operator is also working with several device vendors on the testing and validation of these devices ready for commercial availability.
Other major operators known to be conducting trials of HSPA+ technology include 3 and Australian company Telstra.
No release date or price has been revealed, but it does sound like HSPA+ will be arriving a lot sooner than we’d first thought. Mobile World Congress is taking place from the 16th – 19th February.
Wednesday, 9 July 2008
UMTS Evolution from 3GPP Release 7 to Release 8: HSPA and SAE/LTE offers a further review of 3GPP Release-7 (Rel-7) upon its completion in the technology standardization process and an introduction to the improved features of 3GPP Release 8 (Rel-8). The paper explores the growing demands for wireless data and successes for a variety of wireless applications, the increasing Average Revenue per User (ARPU) for wireless services by operators worldwide, recent developments in 3GPP technologies by several leading manufacturers, and 3GPP technology benefits and technical features.
Upon the finalization of the Rel-8 standard later this year, 3G Americas will publish a new white paper on the 3GPP standards that will include the completion of Rel-7 HSPA+ features, voice over HSPA, SAE/EPC (Evolved Packet Core) specification and Common IMS among other new developments and features. Since HSPA+ enhancements are fully backwards compatible with Rel-99/Rel-5/Rel-6, the upgrade to HSPA+ has been made smooth and evolutionary for GSM operators. Additionally, Rel-7 standardizes Evolved EDGE with continuing development in Rel-8 which will improve the user experience across all wireless data services by reducing latency and increasing data throughput and capacity. Finalization of the Rel-8 standard by the end of this year will further progress market interest in commercial deployment of LTE. Leading operators worldwide are announcing their plans to deploy LTE as early as 2010 with trials already occurring today.
The popular white paper UMTS Evolution from 3GPP Release 7 to Release 8: HSPA and SAE/LTE was written collaboratively by members of 3G Americas and is available for free download here.
Tuesday, 17 June 2008
In its bid to overtake Ericsson AB and become the world’s top radio access infrastructure supplier in terms of revenue, Nokia Siemens Networks believes its approach to all-IP flat architecture on 3G networks will give it an edge. Nokia Siemens says operators do not have to wait for LTE, to get the benefits of an all-IP architecture, and it is the only vendor that currently champions a flat 3G radio access network (RAN) approach.
As mobile data traffic continues to surge, operators are considering how to adopt flat, all-IP architectures in their 3G networks before the advent of 4G in order to gain lower latency, lower cost per bit, support for multiple access networks, and preparation for next-generation networks. But there are different ways to implement such architectures, and just how operators arrive at a flatter data network architecture is hotly debated.
Nokia Siemens has put its money on a flat RAN approach for high-speed packet access (HSPA) and the coming HSPA+ standard, in addition to its support for the Direct Tunnel architecture.
In a flat RAN architecture, the radio network controller (RNC) is integrated into the Node B so that the base station communicates directly with the Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN).
But there are as many benefits as drawbacks to flat 3G RANs, which makes it a controversial approach, according to the recent Heavy Reading report, "Flat IP Architectures in Mobile Networks: From 3G to LTE."
With flat RANs, some of the benefits include lower latency for data applications, lower operational costs due to fewer nodes to maintain and manage, augmented data capacity through a data network overlay, and good preparation for so-called 4G LTE/SAE (System Architecture Evolution), which uses a similar functional architecture. Also, costs won’t grow in line with data traffic growth, because operators won’t have to deploy extra RNC and SGSN capacity as traffic increases.
It may be challenging to integrate the RNC into a Node B. RNCs are critical to supporting macro-diversity in mobile networks, which enables mobile handsets to communicate with multiple base stations on the uplink and allows operators to deploy fewer base stations. NSN’s flat RAN architecture supports this feature, but in an unorthodox way, according to the Heavy Reading report.
So far, Nokia Siemens has three customers using its Internet HSPA (I-HSPA) flat RAN solution: Stelera Wireless and TerreStar Neworks in the U.S. and T-2 in Slovenia. And Mobilkom Austria AG & Co. KG recently trialed the solution.
Nokia Siemens’ Rouanne explains that flat 3G RANs aren’t necessary when there is just “medium” data traffic, but are best suited when operators have big data traffic volumes. “Those networks that are starting to be under pressure with traffic are coming to us and wanting to direct traffic directly to the Internet,” he says.
Even though Nokia Siemens is the only vocal supporter of flat 3G RANs right now, Brown says the strategy isn’t risky, but it’s “forward-looking.”
And a flat 3G RAN can set up an operator to be ready for the shift to LTE with its inherent flat architecture.
- Cost efficient scaling for Mobile Broadband deployments
- Increased flexibility in terms of network topology
- Allows the SGSN node to be optimized for control plane
- Specifications part of 3GPP rel-7
- Designed for operation in legacy (GGSN/UTRAN) networks
- First step towards the SAE architecture
- Reduce the number of network elements in the data path to lower operations costs and capital expenditure
- Partially decouple the cost of delivering service from the volume of data transmitted to align infrastructure capabilities with emerging application requirements
- Minimize system latency and enable applications with a lower tolerance for delay; upcoming latency enhancements on the radio link can also be fully realized
- Evolve radio access and packet core networks independently of each other to a greater extent than in the past, creating greater flexibility in network planning and deployment
- Develop a flexible core network that can serve as the basis for service innovation across both mobile and generic IP access networks
- Create a platform that will enable mobile broadband operators to be competitive, from a price/performance perspective, with wired networks
Friday, 2 May 2008
During slots where the DPCCH is not transmitted, the NodeB cannot estimate the uplink signal-to-interference ratio for power-control purposes and there is no reason for transmitting a power control bit in the downlink. Consequently, the UE shall not receive any power control commands on the F-DPCH in downlink slots corresponding to inactive uplink DPCCH slots.
There are some restrictions for FDPCH. It is not usable with services requiring data to be mapped to the DCH, such as AMR speech calls and CS video. Also, the lack of pilot information means that a method like feedback-based transmit diversity (closed loop mode) is not usable. The use of closed loop diversity is based on user-specific phase modification, wherein pilot symbols would be needed for verification of the phase rotation applied. On the other hand, when utilizing the F-DPCH, SRBs can benefit from high data rates of HSDPA and reduce service setup times remarkably
Finally, as you may have already figured out, by using F-DPCH the cell capacity has been improved and at the same time for same number of users, the interference has gone down significantly.
Tuesday, 29 April 2008
Thought of adding this while I am in mode of making lists. So whats in HSPA evolution in Rel-7 and Rel-8. Lot of people are unaware that HSPA+ was big enough to finish off in Rel-7 and was definite to spill over in Rel-8
HSPA+ Features in Release 7
- Higher Order Modulation Schemes
- Advantages and weaknesses of higher order modulation
- Interference Sensitivity
- 16-QAM, 64-QAM)
- Behavior in Time Variant Mobile Radio Channels
- Behavior of a time variant mobile radio channel
- Effect of amplitude variations
- Effect of phase variations
- 16-QAM for the S-CCPCH (DL)
- MBSFN only
- Scaling factors
- 64-QAM for the HS-PDSCH (DL)
- Constellation Rearrangement
- Related UE Categories
- 16-QAM for UL (4-PAM for the E-DPDCH)
- HARQ Rate Matching Stage
- UE category
- Overview Advantages and Disadvantages
- Higher peak data rate
- Better resource utilization
- Blind choice of modulation scheme
- High SNIR requirement
- More TX power requirement
- Low range
- Small cell environment
- Restrictions of use for high UE moving speeds
- Channel Estimation Algorithms
- Normal Algorithm
- Gathering pilot information
- Channel estimation
- Data detection
- Advanced Algorithms
- Shorter channel estimation window
- Moving channel estimation window
- Adaptive detection
- Turbo detection
- Performance16-QAM in the UL
- Performance on Link Level 16-QAM in the UL
- Performance of BPSK compared to 4-PAM
- Influence of non-linearity of the power amplifier
- Performance on System Level
- Behavior with increasing load
- Maximum versus average throughput
- Higher Order Modulation Testing
- Test Setup for 16-QAM in the UL
- RF components
- Discussion of the setup
- Selected Performance Requirements for 16-QAM in the UL
- BPSK vs. 4-PAM
- Effect of RX diversity
- Effect of high degree of multipath
- Effect of high UE moving speed
- Introduction to MIMO Technology
- The Basics: Signal Fading Physics between TX and RX
- Multiplexing Dimensions
- The Multipath Dimension
- MIMO General Operation
- MIMO Feedback Procedure (PCI)
- Motivation of Spatial Precoding
- Plain MIMO
- Multiple rank beamforming
- Spatial Precoding
- Codebook, PCI and CQI Loop
- PCI and CQI loop
- MIMO Algorithms
- Linear MIMO Algorithms (Preparation work, Equalizer at the end of the processing chain,
- Equalizer at the beginning of the processing chain), Non-Linear MIMO Algorithms
- MIMO Performance
- MIMO Performance on Link Level (SISO vs. SIMO, SIMO vs. MIMO, 2x2 MIMO vs. 4x2
- MIMO, 16-QAM vs. 64-QAM), Performance on System Level (MIMO vs. SIMO, 50% vs.
- 75% power allocation, 0% vs. 4% feedback errors)
- MIMO Tests
- Official Test Setups (Test NodeB, Fading simulator, Noise generator, UE under test, Single stream test setup, Double stream test setup), Quick and Easy Test Setups (The
easiest test setup, A more reliable test setup: The MIMO circle), Selected Performance
- Requirement Figures (Conditions, 64-QAM performance, Dual stream MIMO
performance, Single stream MIMO performance)
- Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC)
- Basic features
- Uplink Discontinuous Transmission (DTX), Downlink Discontinuous Reception (DRX)
- RRC message ID’s
- DTX and DRX Information
- CPC Timing
- Uplink CQI transmission
- Example for Uplink DPCCH Burst Pattern for 10 ms E-DCH TTI
- Uplink DRX, Downlink DRX
- Uplink DPCCH preamble and postamble
- Uplink DPCCH preamble and postamble for the DPCCH only transmission, Uplink DPCCH preamble and postamble for the E-DCH transmission, Uplink DPCCH preamble and postamble for the HS-DPCCH transmission
- Example of simultaneous Uplink DTX and Downlink DRX
- CPC and Enhanced F-DPCH
- Timing Implications for CPC + Enhanced F-DPCCH
- Upgraded L1 Signaling
- HS-SCCH Review of Rel. 5 and 6
- HS-SCCH Frame Structure, HS-SCCH Part 1 and 2 Forward Error Coding Chain, UE
specific masking of Part 1 and Part 2, HS-PDSCH Code Allocation through Part1 of HSSCCH,
- Transport Block Size Determination – TFRI Mapping
- HS-SCCH of Rel. 7
- HS-SCCH Overview of Rel. 7 (HS-SCCH type 1, No HS-SCCH, HS-SCCH type 2, HSSCCH
type 3), HS-SCCH Type 1 (HS-SCCH Type 1, HS-SCCH Type 1 for Configured 64-QAM Operation, HS-SCCH Orders, 64-QAM Constellation Versions), HS-SCCH Type 2 (for HS-SCCH less operation) (Use of the HS-SCCH-less operation, Procedure HSSCCH-less operation), HS-SCCH Type 3 (HS-SCCH Type 3 Overview, Modulation and
Transport Block Number , HARQ Process Number, Redundancy Version and
- HS-DPCCH of Rel. 7
- HS-DPCCH ACK/NACK (ACK-NACK of primary TB in R5, Preamble and postamble in
R6, ACK-NACK of 2 TB’s in R7), HS-DPCCH PCI and CQI type A and B (CQI in case of
no MIMO operation, PCI and CQI in case of MIMO with 1 TB (CQI type A), PCI and CQI
in case of MIMO with 2 TB’s (CQI type B))
- E-AGCH and E-DPCCH
- Changes in the E-TFCI tables, Changes in the AG tables, Changes in the SG tables
- MAC-ehs Entity versus MAC-hs
- UTRAN side MAC-hs Details – CELL_DCH only
- Flow Control, Scheduling/Priority Handling, HARQ, TFRC selection
- UE side MAC-hs Details – CELL_DCH only
- HARQ, Reordering Queue distribution, Reordering, Disassembly
- UTRAN side MAC-ehs Details
- Some advantages of MAC-ehs compared to MAC-hs , Flow Control, HARQ, TFRC
selection (~ TFRI), LCH-ID mux, Segmentation
- UE side MAC-ehs Details
- HARQ , Disassembly, Reordering queue distribution, Reordering, Reassembly, LCH-ID demultiplexing
- Differences in the MAC-ehs and MAC-hs Header
- MAC-hs Header Parameter Description
- MAC-hs SDU , , MAC-hs Header of MAC-hs PDU), MAC-ehs Header Parameter Description
- MAC-ehs Header Parameter Details
- HARQ Process Work Flow in UE – MAC-hs / MAC-ehs
- Split HS-DSCH Block Functionality
- Practical Exercise: MAC-hs contra MAC-ehs
- MAC-hs / MAC-ehs Stall Avoidance
- Timer-Based Scheme
- Window Bases Scheme
- MAC-(e)hs Reordering Functionality – Timer / Window based
- Flexible RLC PDU Sizes
- The RLC AMD PDU – Rel. 7 Enhancements
- The Poll (POLL) super-field
- RLC AMD Header Fields
- Release 7 Enhancement of the HE-Field and LI
- Comparison of RLC-AM between Rel. 6 and Rel. 7
- RLC-AM Overhead using fixed or flexible PDU size
· RRC State Operation Enhancements
- Transport Channel Type Switching with HSPA in R6
- Transport Channel Combinations between UL and DL, Radio Bearer Multiplexing Options in Rel. 6
- Operation of UTRA RRC States in Release 7
- UE Idle mode, CELL_DCH state
- HS-DSCH Reception in CELL_FACH and XXX_PCH
- Overview (UE dedicated paging in CELL_DCH, CELL_FACH and CELL_PCH, BCCH
reception in CELL_FACH, FACH measurement occasion calculation, Measurement
reporting procedure), (1) Operation in the CELL_FACH state (DCCH / DTCH reception in
CELL_FACH state , User data on HS-DSCH in Enhanced CELL_FACH state), (2) Operation in the CELL_FACH state – Cell Update, (3) RRC Idle to transient CELL_FACH
(Common H-RNTI selection in CELL_FACH (FDD only), H-RNTI selection when entering
Connected mode (FDD only) ), Operation in the URA_PCH or CELL_PCH state (Data
Transfer in CELL_PCH with dH-RNTI, State Transision from CELL_PCH to CELL_FACH
to CELL_DCH, CELL_PCH and URA_PCH enhanced Paging Procedure)
HSPA+ Features in Release 8
- Overview of HSPA+ Related Work Items in R8
- Requirements for two branch IC
- CS voice over HSPA
- Performance req. for 15 HSDPA codes
- MIMO + 64-QAM
- Enhanced DRX
- Improved L2 for UL
- Enhanced UL for CELL_FACH
- R3 Enhancements for HSPA
- Enhanced SRNS relocation
- MIMO combined with 64-QAM
- New UE Categories
- Data Rate, Soft IR memory
- L1 Signaling of MIMO and 64-QAM
- Modulation Schemes and TB Sizes (Signaling on the HS-SCCH type 3, Dilemma to signal
on the modulation schema and TB number field, Solution), CQI Signaling, CQI Tables
Interested readers can refer to Alcatel-Lucent presentation in HSPA+ Summit here.
There is also an interesting Qualcomm paper titled, "Release 7 HSPA+ For Mobile Broadband Evolution" available here.
Thursday, 24 April 2008
From Release 7 there are some additional provisions made for increasing the security.
First lets talk about GSM. Initially only a5_1 and a5_2 algorithms were defined for GSM. They have not been compromised till date and are still secure. Still some new algorithms have been defined to make sure there is a backup if they are ever compromised. a5_3, a5_5 and a5_8 have been defined for GSM/GPRS and GEA3 defined for EDGE.
For UMTS, UEA2 and UIA2 have been defined. They are based on 'Snow 3G' algorithm. Kasumi is a 'blockcipher' algorithm whereas Snow 3G is 'streamcipher'. The interesting thing as far as I understand is that even though this is defined and mandatory for UEs and N/w from Rel7, it wont be used but will only serve as backup. More on this topic can be learnt here.
More detailed information on UIA2 and UEA2 is available here.
There are some enhancements coming in the SIM as well. At present all the Keys are 128bits but there should be a provision that in future, 256 bits can be used.
There are some extensive overhauling of IMS security as well but I havent managed to get a good understanding of that yet.
All the reports from the 3rd ETSI Security Workshop held on Jan 15-16 2008 are available here.
Tuesday, 6 November 2007
propagation. The received signal looks as if there is only a single base station transmitting, but with more multipath components. Therefore, this approach is called an SFN (Single Frequency Network).
The SFN approach is available in Release 7 and can be implemented with relatively minor modifications to the radio network while providing a major gain in the broadcast data rates. On the other hand, SFN transmission requires that the whole 5 MHz carrier is allocated for MBMS usage only, which requires that the total amount of spectrum for the operator is large enough.
Wednesday, 29 August 2007
Before i could begin writing some more details on CPC, i came across Martin's Blog which have excellent information on this topic. So i have listed them down here:
Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC) Is Not Sexy - Part 1
Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC) Is Not Sexy - Part 2
Continuous Packet Connectivity (CPC) Is Not Sexy - Part 3
There might be a part 3 coming soon, which will make life simpler for people like . Any additional information in form of comments most welcome.
Added on the 14th of Jan 2009.
Part 3 has now added to the same post...