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Showing posts with label Agilent. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Agilent. Show all posts

Thursday, 10 July 2014

Taking 5G from vision to reality

This presentation by Moray Rumney of Agilent (Keysight) in Cambridge Wireless, Future of Wireless International conference takes a different angle at what the targets for different technologies have been and based on that what should be the targets for 5G. In fact he has an opinion on M2M and Public safety as well and tries to combine it with 5G. Unfortunately I wasnt at this presentation but from having heard Moray speak in past, I am sure it was a thought provoking presentation.



All presentations from the Future of Wireless International Conference (FWIC) are available here.

Monday, 29 July 2013

Big Data and Vulnerability of Cellular Systems

I am sure most of you are aware of Big Data, if not watch this video on my old post here. Moray Rumney from Agilent recently gave a talk in #FWIC on how Big Data techniques can be used to exploit the vulnerabilities in a cellular system. Though the talk focussed on GSM and 3G, it is always a good intro. The presentation embedded below:



You can also listen to the audio of his presentation here.

Monday, 11 February 2013

Revisiting Coordinated Multi-point (CoMP) Technology

Looks like I re-visit CoMP every Q1 of the year. Couple of years back, I had posted a primer on CoMP here and last year I had a slide on schemes and deployments here. With Release-11 out of the door and  Release-12 getting in full swing in the standards, its time to re-visit this topic in a bit more detail. There are couple of presentations, one completely devoted to this topic and one that has a section on it. Both of them can be downloaded from slideshare.


Saturday, 2 February 2013

Monday, 21 May 2012

RoHC & RoHCv2

Its been a while since I blogged about Robust Header Compression (RoHC). You can see the old posts here and here. Here is an example message showing the header compression information.


RoHCv2 is also available as specified in RFC 5225.

Saturday, 19 May 2012

SPS and TTI Bundling Example

I have blogged about Semi-Persistent Scheduling (SPS) and Transmit Time Interval (TTI) Bundling feature before. They are both very important for VoIP and VoLTE to reduce the signalling overhead.



It should be noted that as per RRC Specs, SPS and TTI Bundling is mutually exclusive. The following from RRC specs:

TTI bundling can be enabled for FDD and for TDD only for configurations 0, 1 and 6. For TDD, E-UTRAN does not simultaneously enable TTI bundling and semi-persistent scheduling in this release of specification. Furthermore, E-UTRAN does not simultaneously configure TTI bundling and SCells with configured uplink.

Tuesday, 8 May 2012

WiFi: Standards, Spectrum and Deployment

Yesterday, IEEE published its fourth revision to 802.11. The updates include faster throughput, improved cellular hand-offs, and better communication between vehicles in addition to other improvements.The following from IEEE website:

The new IEEE 802.11-2012 revision1 has been expanded significantly by supporting devices and networks that are faster, more secure, while offering improved Quality of Service and, improved cellular network hand-off. IEEE 802.11 standards, often referred to as “Wi-Fi®,” already underpin wireless networking applications around the world, such as wireless access to the Internet from offices, homes, airports, hotels, restaurants, trains and aircraft around the world. The standard’s relevance continues to expand with the emergence of new applications, such as the smart grid, which augments the facility for electricity generation, distribution, delivery and consumption with a two-way, end-to-end network for communications and control.

IEEE 802.11 defines one MAC and several PHY specifications for wireless connectivity for fixed, portable and mobile stations. IEEE 802.11-2012 is the fourth revision of the standard to be released since its initial publication in 1997. In addition to incorporating various technical updates and enhancements, IEEE 802.11-2012 consolidates 10 amendments to the base standard that were approved since IEEE 802.11’s last full revision, in 2007. IEEE 802.11n™, for example, defined MAC and PHY modifications to enable much higher throughputs, with a maximum of 600Mb/s; other amendments that have been incorporated into IEEE 802.11-2012 addressed direct-link setup, “fast roam,” radio resource measurement, operation in the 3650-3700MHz band, vehicular environments, mesh networking, security, broadcast/multicast and unicast data delivery, interworking with external networks and network management.

“The new IEEE 802.11 release is the product of an evolutionary process that has played out over five years and drawn on the expertise and efforts of hundreds of participants worldwide. More than 300 voters from a sweeping cross-section of global industry contributed to the new standard, which has roughly doubled in size since its last published revision,” said Bruce Kraemer, chair of the IEEE 802.11 working group. “Every day, about two million products that contain IEEE 802.11-based technology for wireless communications are shipped around the world. Continuous enhancement of the standard has helped drive technical innovation and global market growth. And work on the next generation of IEEE 802.11 already has commenced with a variety of project goals including extensions that will increase the data rate by a factor of 10, improve audio/video delivery, increase range and decrease power consumption.”

1 IEEE 802.11™-2012 “Standard for Information technology--Telecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area networks--Specific requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications”


The following is from a presentation by Agilent in LTE World Summit last year. It summarises the 802.11 standards, the Spectrum available and deployment use cases.







Monday, 14 March 2011

LTE Physical Layer Measurements of RSRP and RSRQ

One of the things on my mind for long time was to find a bit more about RSRP and RSRQ.

The following is from Agilent Whitepaper:

The UE and the eNB are required to make physical layer measurements of the radio characteristics. The measurement definitions are specified in 3GPP TS 36.214. Measurements are reported to the higher layers and are used for a variety of purposes including intra- and inter-frequency handover, inter-radio access technology (inter-RAT) handover, timing measurements, and other purposes in support of RRM.

Reference signal receive power (RSRP):

RSRP is the most basic of the UE physical layer measurements and is the linear average (in watts) of the downlink reference signals (RS) across the channel bandwidth. Since the RS exist only for one symbol at a time, the measurement is made only on those resource elements (RE) that contain cell-specific RS. It is not mandated for the UE to measure every RS symbol on the relevant subcarriers. Instead, accuracy requirements have to be met. There are requirements for both absolute and relative RSRP. The absolute requirements range from ±6 to ±11 dB depending on the noise level and environmental conditions. Measuring the difference in RSRP between two cells on the same frequency (intra-frequency measurement) is a more accurate operation for which the requirements vary from ±2 to ±3 dB. The requirements widen again to ±6 dB when the cells are on different frequencies (inter-frequency measurement).

Knowledge of absolute RSRP provides the UE with essential information about the strength of cells from which path loss can be calculated and used in the algorithms for determining the optimum power settings for operating the network. Reference signal receive power is used both in idle and connected states. The relative RSRP is used as a parameter in multi-cell scenarios.

Reference signal receive quality (RSRQ):

Although RSRP is an important measure, on its own it gives no indication of signal quality. RSRQ provides this measure and is defined as the ratio of RSRP to the E-UTRA carrier received signal strength indicator (RSSI). The RSSI parameter represents the entire received power including the wanted power from the serving cell as well as all cochannel power and other sources of noise. Measuring RSRQ becomes particularly important near the cell edge when decisions need to be made, regardless of absolute RSRP, to perform a handover to the next cell. Reference signal receive quality is used only during connected states. Intra- and inter-frequency absolute RSRQ accuracy varies from ±2.5 to ±4 dB, which is similar to the interfrequency relative RSRQ accuracy of ±3 to ±4 dB.

The following is from R&S white paper:


The RSRP is comparable to the CPICH RSCP measurement in WCDMA. This measurement of the signal strength of an LTE cell helps to rank between the different cells as input for handover and cell reselection decisions. The RSRP is the average of the power of all resource elements which carry cell-specific reference signals over the entire bandwidth. It can therefore only be measured in the OFDM symbols carrying reference symbols.

The RSRQ measurement provides additional information when RSRP is not sufficient to make a reliable handover or cell reselection decision. RSRQ is the ratio between the RSRP and the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI), and depending on the measurement bandwidth, means the number of resource blocks. RSSI is the total received wideband power including all interference and thermal noise. As RSRQ combines signal strength as well as interference level, this measurement value provides additional help for mobility decisions.

Assume that only reference signals are transmitted in a resource block, and that data and noise and interference are not considered. In this case RSRQ is equal to -3 dB. If reference signals and subcarriers carrying data are equally powered, the ratio corresponds to 1/12 or -10.79 dB. At this point it is now important to prove that the UE is capable of detecting and decoding the downlink signal under bad channel conditions, including a high noise floor and different propagation conditions that can be simulated by using different fading profiles.

I will be adding some conformance test logs at the 3G4G website for Measurement and Cell Selection/Re-selection that will give some more information about this.

In case you can provide a much simpler explanation or reference please feel free to add in the comment.

Friday, 7 January 2011

LTE-Advanced (Rel-10) UE Categories

I blogged about the 1200Mbps of DL with LTE Advanced earlier and quite a few people asked me about the bandwidth, etc. I found another UE categories table in Agilent lterature on LTE-Advanced here.

The existing UE categories 1-5 for Release 8 and Release 9 are shown in Table 4. In order to accommodate LTE-Advanced capabilities, three new UE categories 6-8 have been defined.


Note that category 8 exceeds the requirements of IMT-Advanced by a considerable
margin.

Given the many possible combinations of layers and carrier aggregation, many configurations could be used to meet the data rates in Table 4. Tables 5 and 6 define the most probable cases for which performance requirements will be developed.

Wednesday, 26 May 2010

Small cells and Wireless Capacity Growth

Self explanatory slide showing the impact of Small cells on the capacity growth. This is probably the best way to further increase the capacity.

Courtesy: Moray Rumney, Agilent technologies in LTE World Summit

Monday, 25 January 2010

LTE/EPS Security Starting point


Recently a colleague wanted to know from where should he start reading about LTE/SAE security. The obvious answer was 3GPP TS 33.401 which is the specification and provides complete details. It seems that some people get scared when they start looking at the specs and in that case it is preferable to have a book chapter or something similar that could provide useful information.

Agilent, the T&M manufacturers released a book last year on LTE and the chapter on the Security is freely available on the web which I have also stored on the 3G4G website. It is a good starting point and provides basic details that technically minded people may find useful.

You can have a look at the Security chapter here.

Monday, 5 October 2009

Industry's first LTE Comformance test submitted for approval


Anite has submitted the first LTE test case 8.1.2.1 based on the conformance test specification 36.523-1. The test case was debugged using the LG Electronics LE03 UE.

This is in a way good news as the industry is moving forward at an amazing speed. The Release-8 of LTE was finalised in reality in March 09 (or Dec. 08 for some specs).

Anite has partnered with Agilent for the conformance testing and this release of TC's is a good way forward towards proving industry leadership.

Looking at the latest test cases that have been submitted, it seems another couple of tests 7.1.1.1 and 8.1.1.1 have been submitted as well.

People who are interested in technical details can look at the logs submitted and get the details of the messages that I have specified in the message flow earlier here.

====== Edited after post =====

Here is their press release which seems to have come after my blog :)

Anite, a global leader in testing technology for the wireless industry, and LG Electronics (LG), a global leader and technology innovator in mobile communications, today announced the successful verification of the industry’s first LTE protocol conformance test cases. Anite and LG Electronics have made the results from their groundbreaking work available to the members of the 3GPP standards body, so that the entire mobile industry may benefit from this milestone achievement.

Conformance testing is fundamental in leading-edge technologies, such as LTE, because it ensures that new handsets and data cards deliver both the applications and services anticipated by the end user and the ability to work seamlessly with existing users and networks. LG uses Anite’s LTE solution – which provides a suite of development tools for UE designers – to develop their devices in advance of LTE networks being available, ensuring these meet the industry’s rigorous certification requirements during the earliest stages of their development cycle.

The new tests build upon Anite’s comprehensive portfolio for all leading 3GPP protocol technologies from GSM through EDGE and WCDMA to the latest HSPA+ standards. Anite’s unique blend of software-only host and target test solutions for 2G, 3G and LTE technologies allows developers to adopt a total end-to-end test philosophy for all of their wireless testing needs, reducing both their time and cost to market.

"LTE device certification is essential in ensuring that next generation LTE wireless devices meet customer expectations. Working with LG is speeding the availability of the first LTE test cases to LTE developers, enabling the wireless industry to deploy the technology successfully and more quickly," said Paul Beaver, 3GPP Director, Anite. “Our customers can be confident that investing in Anite’s products will meet their conformance testing needs, maximising their test system utilisation and return on investment.”

Thursday, 7 May 2009

Agilent in a three-pronged attack over LTE

Agilent have decided to launch an all-out attack with the view of proving themselves leaders of LTE technology.

Firstly, they released an LTE book just yesterday. The book will now be competing with four other very popular books on LTE already in the market. I managed to get an early preview of the book and I wasn't very impressed. There are nevertheless some sections which are very well written, containing unique information.

Secondly, Agilent are running some MIMO workshops and have released some very good presentations on MIMO on the web. You can download the material from the workshop here.

Finally, Agilent Technologies are to present three technical sessions at 2009 Informa LTE World Summit. Here is an extract from the press release:

Agilent Technologies has announced it will present three technical sessions and exhibit its LTE test application solutions at the fifth Informa LTE World Summit, Berlin, Germany, May 18-20. Agilent will exhibit its design-automation tools and flexible instrumentation for early LTE R&D design in components, base-station equipment and mobile devices.

The technical sessions are:
* MIMO Mia! -- What the Standards Didn't Tell You about MIMO;
* Honey, Who Shrunk My Mega Bits -- Practical Tips on Measuring Application Throughput in the Real World; and
* Doing Less with Moore - Challenges and Opportunities for Future Standards.

Agilent will exhibit its design-automation tools and flexible instrumentation for early LTE R&D design in components, base-station equipment and mobile devices.

The landscape is changing rapidly in mobile communications, combined with the challenges in global economies, yet LTE clearly is gaining momentum, said Benoit Neel, vice president and general manager of Agilent's Europe, Middle East and Africa field operations. Agilent remains fully committed to providing test solutions for the entire LTE development lifecycle -- from early RF and protocol development to conformance test and comprehensive, real-time network optimization and diagnostics.

Session highlights of Doing Less with Moore - Challenges and Opportunities for Future Standards, an LTE Summit workshop track on standardization presented by Moray Rumney, include:
* Examining trends in standardization
* Growing fragmentation and complexity, diminishing returns
* The growing gap between conformance testing and real life operation
* Opportunities for standards in an uncertain world
* Integration of macrocell and small cell technology
* Can femtocells do it all or do we need Wi-Fi

I am going to be there and am hoping to give youll detailed information on the event.