Tuesday, 24 April 2012

New Spectrum for LTE-Advanced Carrier Aggregation

LTE and IPv6

A discussion on Linkedin prompted me to add some relevant documents relating to LTE and IPv6. Interesting presentation below by Cisco:
Designing LTE with IPv6
View more presentations from Zahid Ghadialy. Available to download from slideshare here.

There are some other interesting presentations on slideshare you may want to look at:

Sunday, 22 April 2012

Summary of tweets from #ITMoptimisation

Here is the summary of tweets from the Optimisation conference - #ITMoptimisation for those who missed them:


@patricksteemers: LTE optimization conference started. Kim Larsen kicks it off #TME

@patricksteemers: a typical user spends 80% of mobile data traffic on just 3 cells #TME

@zahidtg: After introducing CELL_PCH the PS Signalling reduced by 50% in TMo Netherlands

@zahidtg: Nice talk by @kimklarsen

@zahidtg: The network state equation by @kimklarsen

@zahidtg: Martin Prosek has already set the stage for my presentation and breakfast briefing tomorrow.

@zahidtg: Signalling load per OS in TEF CZ

@KimKLarsen: pdp context parking helped Telefonica O2 Czech in reducing signaling and improve pdp connection success rate!

@KimKLarsen: Nich Waegner #Qualcomm often overlooked! advanced receivers greatly improve the network capacity and performance.

@zahidtg: Smart WiFi offload

@zahidtg: Migrating from 2G to LTE directly sounds interesting

@KimKLarsen: Dirk Schoeneboom is setting the scene for GSM to LTE migration!

@zahidtg: Me -> Its always tricky going from 2G to LTE considering that few devices are available and have quite a few bugs

@KimKLarsen: LTE TDD 2.3/2.6 top runner for main LTE band (i.e., China & India) in terms of LTE users!

@kitkilgour: @KimKLarsen @zahidtg do you have more information on PDP context parking? what it is, how it works?

@zahidtg: @kitkilgour Will have to check with Martin Prosek as I dont know much about it as well (Cc @KimKLarsen)

@KimKLarsen: Dirk Schoeneboom recommends first launching 3G, prior to refarming 2G band to LTE as likely dormant 3G terminal in base.

@zahidtg: Telefonica UK has already refarmed 900MHz from GSM and moved to 3G in the city centres mainly. In future they see 4G on 900MHz as well

@KimKLarsen: Dirk S>Really important to know the terminal mix in the base! Launching 3G today could have substantial 3G base from start!

@zahidtg: In 2010: 75% of 2G data traffic was from 3G devices, mainly to save battery life - Robert Joyce, Telefonica UK

@KimKLarsen: Rob Joyce, deploying UMTS @ 900MHz is between 3 to 2 times cheaper to deploy per unit provided capacity.

@KimKLarsen: TF UK uses their EGSM band for their UMTS 900 (as this was not highly utilized ... Still took 18 month to refarming)

@KimKLarsen: TF UK launch 3G 900 Jan 11 and expect to extend to full network by 201X ;-) X>2012 but maybe also <2015 (as GSM phases out)

@zahidtg: Robert Joyce, Telefonica UK presentation is full of interesting stats, need to blog about it later :)

@KimKLarsen: TF UK experienced ca. 22% data offload to UMTS900 from 2100!

@KimKLarsen: U900 base 3G layer and U2100 the capacity layer ; Keeping traffic there and avoid HO to 900 challenging.

@KimKLarsen: TF UK calls their UMTS900 their Heineken network (they are also where nobody else are) ...;-)

@zahidtg: O2 UK is refarming the 900MHz spectrum and they will be using 5MHz for UMTS but there will still be some GSM channels

@patricksteemers = Great case on refarming GSM spectrum to cater for smartphone use. #TME

@zahidtg: In Panel discussion @patricksteemers reminds us of those good(?) old days when the main discussions were about Killer App(s) :-)

@zahidtg: TF: 75% of data traffic is from laptops but 75% of signalling traffic is from smartphones

@zahidtg: Robert Joyce, Telefonica UK says that on their Unlimited LTE trial n/w, biggest consumer consumes 55GB/week, Avg=2GB/month

@zahidtg: @KimKLarsen asks the audience if anyone will pay extra for facebook access, no one raises they hands :-))

@zahidtg: Martin Prosek, Telefonica, Czech Republic, points out that in the last year the amount of upload has doubled on average

@zahidtg: Thanks @patricksteemers for being an excellent chair. Enjoyed the panel discussion.

@KimKLarsen: @zahidtg amazing!!! I would pay extra! and I know my teenage daughter would! ... Hmmm ;-)

@KimKLarsen: the majority of mobile operators price plans are a sure road towards what they so much fear ... Becoming dumb bit pipes


@zahidtg: Ready for my breakfast briefing :-)

@KimKLarsen: had a really good breakfast discussion on #offload and on-load strategies and how to optimize between the two options.

@KimKLarsen: Yves Bellego, FT, France Telecom / Orange target to have 1/3 of all their cell sites shared within the next few years!

@zahidtg: Good to hear that Bell Canada has 6/7 carriers for UMTS in most places.

@zahidtg: Ljupco Jorguseski, TNO gave an interesting presentation on Optimisation but we will have to wait for technical details

@zahidtg: Its interesting that in #ITMoptimisation there are only 1 (today 2) women out of approx. 80 people. Should have a blog discussion on why...

@zahidtg: Capacity planning in mobile data networks experiencing exponential… http://goo.gl/fb/G03fh

@zahidtg: @patricksteemers just mentioned that open WiFI hotspots can spoof operator networks that can be a major security risk

@zahidtg: LTE Optimisation 

@zahidtg: Adnan Salkic is talking about evolution of WLAN interworking with 3GPP - Simplification of offloading

@zahidtg: Adnan Salkic has an interesting slide on different WLAN solutions being used by different operators. On blog once available

@zahidtg: Tiago Rodrigues of WBA speaking on Carrier WiFI

@zahidtg: 5C's of WiFi - Capacity Crunch. Coverage extension, Customer experience, Cost-effective access, Complimentary

@zahidtg: Need to check the WBA Next Generation Hotspot (NGH) program - Includes 802.1x, 802.11u, EAP-SIM & EAP-TLS/TTLS authentication

@zahidtg: WBA NGH trial phases

@zahidtg: Tiago Rodrigues, WBA says that for 10% of their members, 50% of traffic is being offloaded to WiFi

@disruptivedean: @zahidtg Thanks for your #ITMoptimisation tweets. Maybe ask a question about how other non-offload WiFi models (eg Onload) are supported?

@zahidtg: @disruptivedean Sure, in the Panel discussion in an hour.

@disruptivedean: @zahidtg My view is that offload is only use-case #3 or #4 for smartphone WiFi. Many uses are nothing to do with the MNO.

@zahidtg: David Antunes, Optimus, has loads and loads of useful results but too much info. Has to be analysed offline

@zahidtg: Good to hear CSFB working as it should be. 1.5-2.5s is setup time.

@zahidtg: Additional call setup time to CSFB expected to be shortened by DMCR (Missed what DMCR is...)

@zahidtg: Conclusion of LTE deployment challenges over legacy networks

@KimKLarsen: @zahidtg, good news! there is still a huge market potential for growing the mobile Internet access!

@KimKLarsen: @zahidtg bad news: users want true unlimited data access plans ... Kim> maybe this does not need to be bad!

@KimKLarsen: @zahidtg describes very well the Customer versus Operator dilemmas and competing interest!

@KimKLarsen: great illustration of the future smartphone traffic types: private wifi, 3G data, elastic wifi, on-load!...

@zahidtg: O2 puts wifi on the menu at McDonald’s - http://bit.ly/I5YymX - Mentioned in my talk

@zahidtg: Telstra closed their Carrier-Wifi network http://bit.ly/I5YQud when they launched 4G WiFi hotspot - http://bit.ly/I5YZh6 - Mentioned in my talk

@KimKLarsen: my take away from Randall Schwartz, Wireless 20/20, is wifi offload networks are not a magic bullet but depends on market!!

@zahidtg: ABI Research estimates that carrier Wi-Fi can deliver data at 5% the cost of adding cellular capacity http://bit.ly/HSQp6i - Mentioned in my talk

@KimKLarsen: really enjoying Randall Schwartz techno-economics insights into wifi offloading strategies...This stuff really excites me!

@zahidtg: Yes Randall Schwartz, Wireless 2020 presentation is good but loads of info and it would need offline analysis

@zahidtg: Only half an hour for panel discussion at #ITMoptimisation . @KimKLarsen on the panel so I am only one to tweet

@zahidtg: The Panel topic is: Optimisation strategies for the successful deployment of next generation LTE - #ITMoptimisation - other ques not allowed

@zahidtg: @KimKLarsen "Whatever you deploy should be agreeable with the next gen technology. Should support both HSPA+ and LTE"

@zahidtg: David Antunes, Optimus "Backhaul is probably the most important issue in Optimisation"

@zahidtg: Stephane Teral, "General advice is that nice to have such event to discuss various optimisation issues"

@zahidtg: Stephane Teral, Infonetics Research very impressed with the event, thinks this is the right size and balance

@zahidtg: @KimKLarsen "Wifi gives some benefits but not that extreme benefits, wifi is not small cell, lesson learned in data mining is that mobile users are not mobile at all"

@zahidtg: Optimus did interesting experiement; users were asked to do various tasks on phone and were happy with 800Kbps connection

@zahidtg: Question asked if there is a case for Carrier Wifi except for offload.

@zahidtg: Stephane Teral says that when the user offload, it should onload to carrier wifi so they can be tracked

@zahidtg: David Antunes, Optimus says that if they offer true unlimited data offloading is useful to improve network capacity

@zahidtg: @KimKLarsen says that Carrier Wifi can help solve international data roaming issues (before being forced by EU)

@disruptivedean: Only if the user chooses the carrier's WiFi, surely? MNO shouldn't be tracking use of private, open, ...

@zahidtg: @disruptivedean #ITMoptimisation Sorry time constraints, cant ask another question :-(

@zahidtg: Ok, last presentation at #ITMoptimisation by Mark Nash, iPass - Commercializing Wi-Fi

@zahidtg: what role will WiFi play in 4G

@zahidtg: Mark Nash, iPass: By 2015 there will be around 5.8million public Wifi hotspots available

@zahidtg: 3G data roaming prices - rip off?

@disruptivedean: @zahidtg Monthly subscription model inappropriate for roaming, except for handful of regular travellers

@zahidtg: @disruptivedean I wont mind paying that amount even for 2 days as I know, will not have to worry about bundle allowance

@zahidtg: Mark Nash, iPass points out that so many operators are losing business because of stupid roaming rates.

@zahidtg: iPass closing remarks

@zahidtg: Thanks to fellow tweeter @KimKLarsen. Looking forward already to #LTEWS next month. 


@zahidtg: The concept of 'PDP Context Parking' #ITMoptimisation http://goo.gl/fb/HwVoY

@zahidtg: Operators strategy for supporting the ‘Mobile Data Explosion’ - http://goo.gl/fb/DyjZD

Note that tweets have been edited for clarity


@patricksteemers = Patrick Steemers
@zahidtg = Zahid Ghadialy
@KimKLarsen = Dr. Kim Larsen
@kitkilgour = Kit Kilgour
@disruptivedean = Dean Bubley

Thursday, 19 April 2012

The concept of 'PDP Context Parking'

Access Point Name (APN) identifies a packet data network (PDN) that is configured on and accessible from the packet core (eg. GGSN). APNs are similar to a DNS name of the packet core and its composed of 2 parts.

• The APN Network Identifier which defines the external network or service that the user wishes to connect to via the packet core.
• The APN Operator Identifier which defines in which mobile network the packet core is located.

The APN that a mobile user is allowed to use is either programmed in the phone, or it could be sent over the air (OTA) via SMS. If an invalid APN is used then the PDP context request would be rejected with Invalid APN cause.

The networks of today are capable of handling any APN name and in fact recently I read some operator will allow any APN name to be used (PS: I cant remember details so please feel free to add link in the comment if you know). The reason for any APNs is that users use mobiles that were used on other networks which would have their APN settings, so the operator allows them to use any APN and then send OTA message to provide new settings.

The problem starts on these devices of today, even though you may say that you dont want to use operator data (especially while roaming), it still uses data and if the user does not have a good data plan then he may end up running a huge bill. See a discussion on this topic here and here.

From operators point of view, once they have sent setting OTA then they dont send it again. The users have come up with a workaround that they can use an invalid APN name and that would not connect to the operators network and incur data costs. The problem is that since the PDP Context request was now rejected, the device retries it when the device tries to use data again (mostly when there is no WiFi due to user being out and background apps are still running). This can cause loads of unnecessary signalling (for establishing PDP context).

In a situation like this, Martin Prosek from Telefonica, Czech Republic, mentioned that they have introduced 'PDP Context Parking'. They accept the PDP context request even though the APN is invalid but redirect the user to a default page where the user has many options like name of correct APN for someone using wrong APN by mistake, possiblity to buy 'bolt-ons' so they can use data over the mobile network and in some cases simply some free data allowance so that the users can get a feel of mobile data usage. This helped Telefonica O2, Czech Republic, reduce signaling and improve pdp connection success rate

I think this is a great idea and if someone has more information on this or personal experience, please feel free to add.

Tuesday, 17 April 2012

Release-12 Study on Integration of Single Sign-On (SSO) frameworks with 3GPP networks

This Work Item aims to provide service requirements for interworking of the operator-centric identity management with the user-centric Web services provided outside of an operator’s domain. Specifically, it addresses integration of SSO and the 3GPP services, which is essential for operators to leverage their assets and their customers’ trust, while introducing new identity services. Such integration will allow operators to become SSO providers by re-using the existing authentication mechanisms in which an end-user’s device effectively authenticates the end user.

For the operator to become the preferred SSO Identity Provider might require integration of the operator core with existing application service / content providers to allow the usage of credentials on the UE for SSO services. The 3GPP operator may leverage its trust framework and its reliable and robust secure credential handling infrastructure to provide SSO service based on operator-controlled credentials. Such SSO integration has to work with varied operator authentication configurations.

The Objective is to provide a comprehensive set of service requirements for the integration of SSO frameworks with 3GPP network by building upon the work done in the related feasibility study FS_SSO_Int (published in TR 22.895) as well as previously published related technical reports. This Work Item covers the following:

Service requirements for integration of Identity Management and SSO frameworks, e.g. OpenID;
Service requirements for Operators to enable users to access 3rd party  services using Operator controlled user credentials;
Service requirements associated with ensuring that the intended user is making use of the associated SSO capability (including the case when the UE has been stolen or lost).

3GPP TR 22.895 V12.0.0 - Study on Service aspects of integration of Single Sign-On (SSO) frameworks with 3GPP operator-controlled resources and mechanisms (Release 12) is an interesting read that provides use cases for SSO

The diagram above is from an interesting paper titled "Multi-domain authentication for IMS" that describes SSO and other authentication procedures and introduces the advantage of SSO.

Monday, 16 April 2012

LTE - THE Mobile Broadband Standard

Saw this logo in one of the 3GPP presentations. Does anyone know if this is an official logo?